Jigsaw arriving - and now what?

by Stephan Hermann

Learn more about Stephan's talk JDT embraces Java™ 9 - An insiders' view in this co-published blog.

The debate is over. The result of fierce discussions has been declared. Jigsaw is knocking at the door. Now the fate of Jigsaw depends on the community. Will the community embrace Jigsaw? Will we be able to leverage the new concepts to our benefit? Will we struggle with new pitfalls?

Let’s step back a second: do we really know what is Jigsaw? Do we really understand the design, its subtleties and implications?

At EclipseCon Europe 2017 I will try to shed some light on some lesser known aspects of Jigsaw. A deep dive into things I learned as a JDT committer while implementing tool support for Java 9.

In search of the truth

To set the stage, we’ll first have to figure out, who or what defines Java 9 — or Jigsaw — or JPMS. This is both a question of specification vs. implementation as well as a matter of a specification spread over several documents and artifacts. Let’s try to grok Jigsaw from the legally binding sources, rather then from secondary writing and hearsay (if that is possible).

We will have to relearn some of the basic terms, like: what is a package in Java? Do packages form a hierarchy? (I will show, how both answers, yes and no, are equally right and wrong).

Jigsaw is said to do away with some “undesirable” stuff like split packages, and cyclic dependencies. Really? (Yes and no).

Encapsulation

Of course, with Jigsaw all is about encapsulation – easy to agree on, but what is it that a Java 9 module encapsulates? Only a deep understanding of the flavor of encapsulation will tell us, what exact qualities we gain from following the new discipline (it’s not about security, e.g.), and also what pains will be incurred on the path of migrating to the new model. (Hint: I will be speaking both about compile time and runtime).

Interestingly, the magic potion Jigsaw also brings its own antidote: With tightening the rules of encapsulation, also the opposite becomes necessary: they call it breaking encapsulation, for which I once coined the term “decapsulation“. I should be flattered by how close Java 9 comes to what I call “gradual encapsulation“. So, the talk can not stop at presenting just the new language concepts, also the various extra-lingual means for tuning your architecture need to be inspected through the looking glass. This is also where tools come into focus: how can JDT empower its users to use the new options without the need to dig through the sometimes cryptic syntax of command line parameters?

Loose ends

At this point we shall agree that Jigsaw is a compromise, fulfilling many of its goals and promises, while also missing some opportunities.

I will also have to say a few words of long standing API of JDT, which makes guarantees that are no longer valid in Java 9. This raises the question: what is the migration path for tools that sit on top of JDT? (There is no free lunch).

Finally, it wouldn’t be Java, if overloading wouldn’t make things worse for the newly added concepts. But: haven’t you become fond of hating, when JDT says:

error_obj The type org.foo.Bar cannot be resolved. It is indirectly referenced from required .class files

We may be seeing light at the end of the tunnel: for Jigsaw we had to revamp the guts of our compiler in ways, that could possibly help to – finally – resolve that problem. Wish me luck …

Hope to see you in Ludwigsburg, there’s much to be discussed over coffee and beer.

Stephan

 

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